"ਸੂਰਜ" ਦੇ ਰੀਵਿਜ਼ਨਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਫ਼ਰਕ

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{{Infobox
| bodystyle = border-collapse:collapse
| title = The Sun [[Image:Sun symbol.svg|25px]]
| image = [[File:Sun in February.jpg|290px]]
| caption = False-color image of the Sun
| headerstyle = background:#FCC857
| labelstyle = padding:2px
| datastyle = padding:2px
<!-- section break, rows 1-19-->
| header1 = Observation data
| label2 = Mean distance<br>from [[Earth]]
| data2 = 1 [[astronomical unit|au]] ≈ {{val|1.496|e=8|u=km}}<br>8&nbsp;min 19&nbsp;s at [[speed of light|light speed]]
| label3 = [[Apparent magnitude|Visual brightness]] (''V'')
| data3 = −26.74<ref name=nssdc>{{cite web|last=Williams|first=D. R. |date=1 July 2013 |title=Sun Fact Sheet |url=http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/sunfact.html |publisher=[[NASA Goddard Space Flight Center]] |accessdate=12 August 2013}}</ref>
| label4 = [[Absolute magnitude]]
| data4 = 4.83<ref name=nssdc />
| label5 = [[Spectral classification]]
| data5 = G2V<ref>{{cite book|last=Zombeck|first=Martin V.|date=1990|title=Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics 2nd edition|publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]]|url=http://ads.harvard.edu/books/hsaa/}}</ref>
| label6 = [[Metallicity]]
| data6 = ''Z'' = 0.0122<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Asplund |first1=M. |last2=Grevesse |first2=N. |last3=Sauval |first3=A. J. |date=2006 |title=The new solar abundances – Part I: the observations |journal=[[Communications in Asteroseismology]] |volume=147 |pages=76–79 |bibcode=2006CoAst.147...76A |doi=10.1553/cia147s76}}</ref>
| label7 = [[Angular size]]
| data7 = 31.6–32.7 [[minutes of arc]]<ref>{{cite web |title=Eclipse 99: Frequently Asked Questions |url=http://education.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/pages/faq.html |publisher=[[NASA]] |accessdate=24 October 2010}}</ref>
| label8 = Adjectives
| data8 = Solar
| header10 = [[Orbit]]al characteristics
| label11 = Mean distance<br>from [[Milky Way]] core
| data11 = ≈ {{val|2.7|e=17|u=km}}<br>{{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|27200|ul=light-years}}}}
| label12 = [[Galactic year|Galactic period]]
| data12 = (2.25–2.50){{e|8}} [[julian year (astronomy)|yr]]
| label13 = [[Velocity]]
| data13 = ≈ {{val|220|u=km/s}} (orbit around the center of the Milky Way) <br>≈ {{val|20|u=km/s}} (relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood) <br>≈ {{val|370|u=km/s}}<ref>{{cite journal |last=Hinshaw |first=G. |display-authors=etal |date=2009 |title=Five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations: data processing, sky maps, and basic results |journal=[[The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series]] |volume=180 |issue=2 |pages=225–245 |arxiv=0803.0732 |bibcode=2009ApJS..180..225H |doi=10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/225}}</ref> (relative to the [[Cosmic microwave background radiation#CMBR dipole anisotropy|cosmic microwave background]])
<!-- section break, rows 20-39 -->
| header20 = Physical characteristics
| label21 = Equatorial [[radius]]
| data21 = [[Solar radius|695,700]]&nbsp;km<ref name=IAU2015resB3>{{citation | first1=E.E. | last1=Mamajek | first2=A. | last2=Prsa | first3=G. | last3=Torres | first4=al. | last4=et | title=IAU 2015 Resolution B3 on Recommended Nominal Conversion Constants for Selected Solar and Planetary Properties | work=arXiv | url=http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.07674 | accessdate=2016-01-17}}</ref><br> 109 × Earth<ref name=sse/>
| label22 = Equatorial [[circumference]]
| data22 = {{val|4.379|e=6|u=km}}<ref name=sse/><br>109 × Earth<ref name=sse>{{cite web |title=Solar System Exploration: Planets: Sun: Facts & Figures |url=http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Sun&Display=Facts&System=Metric |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080102034758/http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Sun&Display=Facts&System=Metric |archivedate=2 January 2008 |publisher=[[NASA]]
}}</ref>
| label23 = [[Flattening]]
| data23 = {{val|9|e=-6}}
| label24 = [[Surface area]]
| data24 = {{val|6.09|e=12|u=km2}}<ref name=sse/><br>{{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|12000}}}} × Earth<ref name=sse/>
| label25 = [[Volume]]
| data25 = {{val|1.41|e=18|u=km3}}<ref name=sse/><!-- NASA source has "1.412 x 10^18 km^3", which is 1.412 × 10^27 m^3 (basic arithmetic, also verified using the formula for volume of a sphere), but the Sun is not a sphere, and their radius is off a bit from what we have above, so we need to at least round a bit--><br>{{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|1300000}}}} × Earth
| label26 = [[Mass]]
| data26 = {{val|1.98855|.00025|e=30|u=kg}}<ref name=nssdc/><br>{{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|333000}}}} × Earth<ref name=nssdc/><!-- NASA Sun Fact Sheet states 333,000, a figure coherent with data already present in en.wiki -->
| label27 = Average [[density]]
| data27 = {{val|1.408|u=g/cm3}}<ref name=nssdc/><ref name=sse/><ref>{{cite web |last=Ko |first=M. |date=1999 |title=Density of the Sun |url=http://hypertextbook.com/facts/1999/MayKo.shtml |editor=Elert, G. |work=The Physics Factbook}}</ref><br>{{val|0.255}} × Earth<ref name=nssdc/><ref name=sse/>
| label28 = Center [[density]] (modeled)
| data28 = {{val|162.2|u=g/cm3}}<ref name=nssdc/><br>{{val|12.4}} × Earth
| label29 = Equatorial [[surface gravity]]
| data29 = {{val|274.0|u=m/s2}}<ref name=nssdc/><br>{{val|27.94|u=[[g-force|''g'']]}}<br>{{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|27542.29|u=''[[cgs]]''}}}}<br>28 × Earth<ref name=sse/>
| label30 = [[Escape velocity]]<br>(from the surface)
| data30 = {{val|617.7|u=km/s}}<ref name=sse/><br>55 × Earth<ref name=sse/>
| label31 = Temperature
| data31 = Center (modeled): {{val|1.57|e=7|u=K}}<ref name=nssdc/><br>[[Photosphere]] (effective): {{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|5772|ul=K}}}}<ref name=nssdc/><br> [[Corona]]: ≈ {{val|5|e=6|u=K}}
| label32 = [[Luminosity]] (L<sub>sol</sub>)
| data32 = {{val|3.828|e=26|ul=W}}<ref name=nssdc/><br>≈ {{val|3.75|e=28|u=[[lumen (unit)|lm]]}}<br>≈ {{val|98|u=lm/W}} [[Luminous efficacy|efficacy]]
| label33 = Mean [[radiance]]&nbsp;(I<sub>sol</sub>)
| data33 = {{val|2.009|e=7|u=W·m<sup>−2</sup>·sr<sup>−1</sup>}}
| label34 = Age
| data34 = ≈ 4.6 billion years<ref name="Bonanno">{{Cite journal |last=Bonanno |first=A. |last2=Schlattl |first2=H. |last3=Paternò |first3=L. |date=2008 |title=The age of the Sun and the relativistic corrections in the EOS |journal=[[Astronomy and Astrophysics]] |volume=390 |issue=3 |pages=1115–1118 |arxiv=astro-ph/0204331 |bibcode=2002A&A...390.1115B |doi=10.1051/0004-6361:20020749 |ref=harv}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|url=//www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6107/651.full|title=The Absolute Chronology and Thermal Processing of Solids in the Solar Protoplanetary Disk|date=2 November 2012|accessdate=17 March 2014|doi=10.1126/science.1226919 |journal=Science|volume=338 |issue= 6107 |pages=651–655|bibcode = 2012Sci...338..651C |pmid=23118187}}{{Registration required}}</ref>
<!-- section break, rows 40-49 -->
| header40 = [[Rotation]] characteristics
| label41 = [[Axial tilt|Obliquity]]
| data41 = 7.25°<ref name=nssdc/><br>(to the [[ecliptic]])<br>67.23°<br>(to the [[galactic plane]])
| label42 = [[Right ascension]]<br>of North pole<ref name="iau-iag">{{cite web |last1=Seidelmann |first1=P. K. |display-authors=etal |title=Report Of The IAU/IAG Working Group On Cartographic Coordinates And Rotational Elements Of The Planets And Satellites: 2000 |url=http://www.hnsky.org/iau-iag.htm |date=2000 |accessdate=22 March 2006}}</ref>
| data42 = 286.13°<br>{{nowrap|19 h 4 min 30 s}}
| label43 = [[Declination]]<br>of North pole
| data43 = +63.87°<br>63° 52' North
| label44 = Sidereal [[Solar rotation|rotation period]] <br>(at equator)
| data44 = 25.05 d<ref name=nssdc/>
| label45 = (at 16° latitude)
| data45 = 25.38 d<ref name=nssdc/><br>{{nowrap|25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s}}<ref name="iau-iag"/>
| label46 = (at poles)
| data46 = 34.4 d<ref name=nssdc/><!-- derived from T = ( 14.37 - 2.33 sin^2 L - 1.56 sin^4 L ) °/day, L = 90° -->
| label47 = Rotation velocity<br>(at equator)
| data47 = {{val|7.189|e=3|u=km/h}}<ref name="sse"/><!-- Derived from NASA source: equatorial circumference of 4,379,000 kilometres divided by sidereal rotation period of 609.12 hours; maybe this kind of basic calculation could be done in some generic template code? -->
<!-- section break, rows 50-69 -->
| header50 = [[photosphere|Photospheric]] composition (by mass)
| label51 = [[Hydrogen]]
| data51 = 73.46%<ref>{{cite web |title=The Sun's Vital Statistics |url=http://solar-center.stanford.edu/vitalstats.html |publisher=[[Stanford Solar Center]] |accessdate=29 July 2008}} Citing {{cite book |last=Eddy |first=J. |date=1979 |title=A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab |url=http://history.nasa.gov/SP-402/contents.htm |page=37 |publisher=[[NASA]] |id=NASA SP-402}}</ref>
| label52 = [[Helium]]
| data52 = 24.85%
| label53 = [[Oxygen]]
| data53 = 0.77%
| label54 = [[Carbon]]
| data54 = 0.29%
| label55 = [[Iron]]
| data55 = 0.16%
| label56 = [[Neon]]
| data56 = 0.12%
| label57 = [[Nitrogen]]
| data57 = 0.09%
| label58 = [[Silicon]]
| data58 = 0.07%
| label59 = [[Magnesium]]
| data59 = 0.05%
| label60 = [[Sulfur]]
| data60 = 0.04%
}}
 
[[File:Sun in February.jpg|thumb|ਫਰਵਰੀ ਵਿੱਚ ਸੂਰਜ]]
ਸੂਰਜ ਨੂੰ ਇੱਕ ਤਾਰੇ ਵਾਂਗ ਮੰਨਿਆ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ, ਜਿਸ ਦੀ ਹਾਲਤ ਹਾਲੇ ਸਥਿਰ ਹੈ, ਜਿਸ ਕਰਕੇ ਇਹ ਨਾ ਤਾਂ ਹਾਲੇ ਫੈਲ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਨਾ ਹੀ ਸੁੰਘੜ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਇਹ ਆਪਣੀ ਸ਼ਕਤੀ ਹਾਈਡਰੋਜਨ ਦੇ ਪਰਮਾਣੂਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਨਿਊਕਲੀਅਰ ਸੰਯੋਜਨ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਹੀਲੀਅਮ ਵਿੱਚ ਬਦਲਣ ਨਾਲ ਤਿਆਰ ਕਰ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ। ਸੂਰਜ G2V ਕਿਸਮ ਦਾ ਸਟੇਲਰ ਤਾਰਾ ਹੈ, ਜਿੱਥੇ ਕਿ G2 ਦਾ ਅਰਥ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਇਸ ਦਾ ਰੰਗ ਪੀਲਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਵਰਣ-ਪੱਟ ਆਇਨੀਕ੍ਰਿਤ ਅਤੇ ਨਿਊਟਰਲ ਧਾਤਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਹਲਕੀਆਂ ਹਾਈਡਰੋਜਨ ਰੇਖਾਵਾਂ ਰੱਖਦਾ ਹੈ। <ref>http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/spectra.html#classes</ref> ਅਤੇ V ਹੋਰ ਤਾਰਿਆਂ ਵਾਂਗ ਵੇਖਾਉਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਇਹ ਆਮ ਤਾਰਿਆਂ ਵਾਂਗ ਹੀ ਮੁੱਖ ਤਾਰਾ ਹੈ।<ref>http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/people/ross/phys2080/spec/analyz.htm</ref>