"ਸੂਰਜ" ਦੇ ਰੀਵਿਜ਼ਨਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਫ਼ਰਕ

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{{Infobox
| bodystyle = border-collapse:collapse
| title = The Sun [[Image:Sun symbol.svg|25px]]
| image = [[File:Sun in February.jpg|290px]]
| caption = False-color image of the Sun
| headerstyle = background:#FCC857
| labelstyle = padding:2px
| datastyle = padding:2px
<!-- section break, rows 1-19-->
| header1 = Observation data
| label2 = Mean distance<br>from [[Earth]]
| data2 = 1 [[astronomical unit|au]] ≈ {{val|1.496|e=8|u=km}}<br>8&nbsp;min 19&nbsp;s at [[speed of light|light speed]]
| label3 = [[Apparent magnitude|Visual brightness]] (''V'')
| data3 = −26.74<ref name=nssdc>{{cite web|last=Williams|first=D. R. |date=1 July 2013 |title=Sun Fact Sheet |url=http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/sunfact.html |publisher=[[NASA Goddard Space Flight Center]] |accessdate=12 August 2013}}</ref>
| label4 = [[Absolute magnitude]]
| data4 = 4.83<ref name=nssdc />
| label5 = [[Spectral classification]]
| data5 = G2V<ref>{{cite book|last=Zombeck|first=Martin V.|date=1990|title=Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics 2nd edition|publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]]|url=http://ads.harvard.edu/books/hsaa/}}</ref>
| label6 = [[Metallicity]]
| data6 = ''Z'' = 0.0122<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Asplund |first1=M. |last2=Grevesse |first2=N. |last3=Sauval |first3=A. J. |date=2006 |title=The new solar abundances – Part I: the observations |journal=[[Communications in Asteroseismology]] |volume=147 |pages=76–79 |bibcode=2006CoAst.147...76A |doi=10.1553/cia147s76}}</ref>
| label7 = [[Angular size]]
| data7 = 31.6–32.7 [[minutes of arc]]<ref>{{cite web |title=Eclipse 99: Frequently Asked Questions |url=http://education.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/pages/faq.html |publisher=[[NASA]] |accessdate=24 October 2010}}</ref>
| label8 = Adjectives
| data8 = Solar
| header10 = [[Orbit]]al characteristics
| label11 = Mean distance<br>from [[Milky Way]] core
| data11 = ≈ {{val|2.7|e=17|u=km}}<br>{{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|27200|ul=light-years}}}}
| label12 = [[Galactic year|Galactic period]]
| data12 = (2.25–2.50){{e|8}} [[julian year (astronomy)|yr]]
| label13 = [[Velocity]]
| data13 = ≈ {{val|220|u=km/s}} (orbit around the center of the Milky Way) <br>≈ {{val|20|u=km/s}} (relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood) <br>≈ {{val|370|u=km/s}}<ref>{{cite journal |last=Hinshaw |first=G. |display-authors=etal |date=2009 |title=Five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations: data processing, sky maps, and basic results |journal=[[The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series]] |volume=180 |issue=2 |pages=225–245 |arxiv=0803.0732 |bibcode=2009ApJS..180..225H |doi=10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/225}}</ref> (relative to the [[Cosmic microwave background radiation#CMBR dipole anisotropy|cosmic microwave background]])
<!-- section break, rows 20-39 -->
| header20 = Physical characteristics
| label21 = Equatorial [[radius]]
| data21 = [[Solar radius|695,700]]&nbsp;km<ref name=IAU2015resB3>{{citation | first1=E.E. | last1=Mamajek | first2=A. | last2=Prsa | first3=G. | last3=Torres | first4=al. | last4=et | title=IAU 2015 Resolution B3 on Recommended Nominal Conversion Constants for Selected Solar and Planetary Properties | work=arXiv | url=http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.07674 | accessdate=2016-01-17}}</ref><br> 109 × Earth<ref name=sse/>
| label22 = Equatorial [[circumference]]
| data22 = {{val|4.379|e=6|u=km}}<ref name=sse/><br>109 × Earth<ref name=sse>{{cite web |title=Solar System Exploration: Planets: Sun: Facts & Figures |url=http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Sun&Display=Facts&System=Metric |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080102034758/http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Sun&Display=Facts&System=Metric |archivedate=2 January 2008 |publisher=[[NASA]]
}}</ref>
| label23 = [[Flattening]]
| data23 = {{val|9|e=-6}}
| label24 = [[Surface area]]
| data24 = {{val|6.09|e=12|u=km2}}<ref name=sse/><br>{{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|12000}}}} × Earth<ref name=sse/>
| label25 = [[Volume]]
| data25 = {{val|1.41|e=18|u=km3}}<ref name=sse/><!-- NASA source has "1.412 x 10^18 km^3", which is 1.412 × 10^27 m^3 (basic arithmetic, also verified using the formula for volume of a sphere), but the Sun is not a sphere, and their radius is off a bit from what we have above, so we need to at least round a bit--><br>{{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|1300000}}}} × Earth
| label26 = [[Mass]]
| data26 = {{val|1.98855|.00025|e=30|u=kg}}<ref name=nssdc/><br>{{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|333000}}}} × Earth<ref name=nssdc/><!-- NASA Sun Fact Sheet states 333,000, a figure coherent with data already present in en.wiki -->
| label27 = Average [[density]]
| data27 = {{val|1.408|u=g/cm3}}<ref name=nssdc/><ref name=sse/><ref>{{cite web |last=Ko |first=M. |date=1999 |title=Density of the Sun |url=http://hypertextbook.com/facts/1999/MayKo.shtml |editor=Elert, G. |work=The Physics Factbook}}</ref><br>{{val|0.255}} × Earth<ref name=nssdc/><ref name=sse/>
| label28 = Center [[density]] (modeled)
| data28 = {{val|162.2|u=g/cm3}}<ref name=nssdc/><br>{{val|12.4}} × Earth
| label29 = Equatorial [[surface gravity]]
| data29 = {{val|274.0|u=m/s2}}<ref name=nssdc/><br>{{val|27.94|u=[[g-force|''g'']]}}<br>{{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|27542.29|u=''[[cgs]]''}}}}<br>28 × Earth<ref name=sse/>
| label30 = [[Escape velocity]]<br>(from the surface)
| data30 = {{val|617.7|u=km/s}}<ref name=sse/><br>55 × Earth<ref name=sse/>
| label31 = Temperature
| data31 = Center (modeled): {{val|1.57|e=7|u=K}}<ref name=nssdc/><br>[[Photosphere]] (effective): {{nowrap|{{val|fmt=commas|5772|ul=K}}}}<ref name=nssdc/><br> [[Corona]]: ≈ {{val|5|e=6|u=K}}
| label32 = [[Luminosity]] (L<sub>sol</sub>)
| data32 = {{val|3.828|e=26|ul=W}}<ref name=nssdc/><br>≈ {{val|3.75|e=28|u=[[lumen (unit)|lm]]}}<br>≈ {{val|98|u=lm/W}} [[Luminous efficacy|efficacy]]
| label33 = Mean [[radiance]]&nbsp;(I<sub>sol</sub>)
| data33 = {{val|2.009|e=7|u=W·m<sup>−2</sup>·sr<sup>−1</sup>}}
| label34 = Age
| data34 = ≈ 4.6 billion years<ref name="Bonanno">{{Cite journal |last=Bonanno |first=A. |last2=Schlattl |first2=H. |last3=Paternò |first3=L. |date=2008 |title=The age of the Sun and the relativistic corrections in the EOS |journal=[[Astronomy and Astrophysics]] |volume=390 |issue=3 |pages=1115–1118 |arxiv=astro-ph/0204331 |bibcode=2002A&A...390.1115B |doi=10.1051/0004-6361:20020749 |ref=harv}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|url=//www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6107/651.full|title=The Absolute Chronology and Thermal Processing of Solids in the Solar Protoplanetary Disk|date=2 November 2012|accessdate=17 March 2014|doi=10.1126/science.1226919 |journal=Science|volume=338 |issue= 6107 |pages=651–655|bibcode = 2012Sci...338..651C |pmid=23118187}}{{Registration required}}</ref>
<!-- section break, rows 40-49 -->
| header40 = [[Rotation]] characteristics
| label41 = [[Axial tilt|Obliquity]]
| data41 = 7.25°<ref name=nssdc/><br>(to the [[ecliptic]])<br>67.23°<br>(to the [[galactic plane]])
| label42 = [[Right ascension]]<br>of North pole<ref name="iau-iag">{{cite web |last1=Seidelmann |first1=P. K. |display-authors=etal |title=Report Of The IAU/IAG Working Group On Cartographic Coordinates And Rotational Elements Of The Planets And Satellites: 2000 |url=http://www.hnsky.org/iau-iag.htm |date=2000 |accessdate=22 March 2006}}</ref>
| data42 = 286.13°<br>{{nowrap|19 h 4 min 30 s}}
| label43 = [[Declination]]<br>of North pole
| data43 = +63.87°<br>63° 52' North
| label44 = Sidereal [[Solar rotation|rotation period]] <br>(at equator)
| data44 = 25.05 d<ref name=nssdc/>
| label45 = (at 16° latitude)
| data45 = 25.38 d<ref name=nssdc/><br>{{nowrap|25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s}}<ref name="iau-iag"/>
| label46 = (at poles)
| data46 = 34.4 d<ref name=nssdc/><!-- derived from T = ( 14.37 - 2.33 sin^2 L - 1.56 sin^4 L ) °/day, L = 90° -->
| label47 = Rotation velocity<br>(at equator)
| data47 = {{val|7.189|e=3|u=km/h}}<ref name="sse"/><!-- Derived from NASA source: equatorial circumference of 4,379,000 kilometres divided by sidereal rotation period of 609.12 hours; maybe this kind of basic calculation could be done in some generic template code? -->
<!-- section break, rows 50-69 -->
| header50 = [[photosphere|Photospheric]] composition (by mass)
| label51 = [[Hydrogen]]
| data51 = 73.46%<ref>{{cite web |title=The Sun's Vital Statistics |url=http://solar-center.stanford.edu/vitalstats.html |publisher=[[Stanford Solar Center]] |accessdate=29 July 2008}} Citing {{cite book |last=Eddy |first=J. |date=1979 |title=A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab |url=http://history.nasa.gov/SP-402/contents.htm |page=37 |publisher=[[NASA]] |id=NASA SP-402}}</ref>
| label52 = [[Helium]]
| data52 = 24.85%
| label53 = [[Oxygen]]
| data53 = 0.77%
| label54 = [[Carbon]]
| data54 = 0.29%
| label55 = [[Iron]]
| data55 = 0.16%
| label56 = [[Neon]]
| data56 = 0.12%
| label57 = [[Nitrogen]]
| data57 = 0.09%
| label58 = [[Silicon]]
| data58 = 0.07%
| label59 = [[Magnesium]]
| data59 = 0.05%
| label60 = [[Sulfur]]
| data60 = 0.04%
}}
 
[[File:Sun in February.jpg|thumb|ਫਰਵਰੀ ਵਿੱਚ ਸੂਰਜ]]