=== ਈਸਪ ਦੀਆਂ ਕਹਾਣੀਆਂ ਜਾਂ ਈਸਪਿਕਾ ===
The varying corpus denoted ''Aesopica'' or ''[[ਈਸਪ ਦੀਆਂ ਕਹਾਣੀਆਂ|Aesop's Fables]]'' includes most of the best-known western fables, which are attributed to the [[ਦੰਦ ਕਥਾ|legendary]] [[ਈਸਪ|Aesop]], supposed to have been a slave in [[ਪੁਰਾਤਨ ਯੂਨਾਨ|ancient Greece]] around 550 BC. When Babrius set down fables from the ''Aesopica'' in verse for a Hellenistic Prince "Alexander," he expressly stated at the head of Book II that this type of "myth" that Aesop had introduced to the "sons of the Hellenes" had been an invention of "Syrians" from the time of "Ninos" (personifying Nineveh to Greeks) and Belos ("ruler").<ref>Burkert 1992:121</ref> Epicharmus of Kos and Phormis are reported as having been among the first to invent comic fables.<ref>P. W. Buckham, p. 245</ref> Many familiar fables of Aesop include "[[ਪਿਆਸਾ ਕਾਂ|The Crow and the Pitcher]]", "The Tortoise and the Hare" and "[[ਸ਼ੇਰ ਅਤੇ ਚੂਹਾ|The Lion and the Mouse]]". In ancient Greek and Roman education, the fable was the first of the ''progymnasmata''—training exercises in prose composition and public speaking—wherein students would be asked to learn fables, expand upon them, invent their own, and finally use them as persuasive examples in longer forensic or deliberative speeches. The need of instructors to teach, and students to learn, a wide range of fables as material for their declamations resulted in their being gathered together in collections, like those of Aesop.
=== ਅਫਰੀਕਾ ===