"ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ ਲਿਪੀ" ਦੇ ਰੀਵਿਜ਼ਨਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਫ਼ਰਕ

ਕੋਈ ਸੋਧ ਸਾਰ ਨਹੀਂ
ਟੈਗ: ਮੋਬਾਈਲੀ ਸੋਧ ਮੋਬਾਈਲੀ ਵੈੱਬ ਸੋਧ
|fam3=[[ਫੋਨੀਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਲਿਪੀ|ਫੋਨੀਸ਼ੀਆਈ]]<sup>[ੳ]</sup>
|fam4=[[ਆਰਾਮੀ ਲਿਪੀ|ਆਰਾਮੀ]]<sup>[ੳ]</sup>
|footnotes=[ੳ] ਬ੍ਰਹਮੀਬ੍ਰਾਹਮੀ ਦਾ ਮੂਲ ਮਿਸਰੀ ਹੈ ਇਸ ਨੂੰ ਸਰਬਤ ਰਜ਼ਾਮੰਦੀ ਨਹੀਂ ਹਾਸਲ।
|fam5=ਬ੍ਰਹਮੀਬ੍ਰਾਹਮੀ
|fam6=ਗੁਪਤਾ
|fam7=[[ਸ਼ਾਰਦਾ ਲਿਪੀ|ਸ਼ਾਰਦਾ]]
{{ਪੰਜਾਬੀਆਂ}}
 
'''ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ''' ({{lang-pa|گرمکھی}} <small>([[ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ]])</small>) ਇੱਕ [[ਸਿੱਖ]] ਲਿੱਪੀ ਹੈ ਜਿਸਨੂੰ ਦੂਜੇ [[ਸਿੱਖ ਗੁਰੂ]], [[ਗੁਰੂ ਅੰਗਦ|ਗੁਰੂ ਅੰਗਦ ਸਾਹਿਬ]] ਨੇ ਸੋਲ਼ਵੀਂ ਸਦੀ ਵਿੱਚ ਤਬਦੀਲ ਅਤੇ ਮਿਆਰਬੰਦ ਕਰਨ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ਼ ਇਸਤਿਮਲ ਕੀਤਾ।<ref name="Gurmukhi - The Sikh Alphabet">{{cite book|last1=Mandair|first1=Arvind-Pal S.|last2=Shackle|first2=Christopher|last3=Singh|first3=Gurharpal|title=Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity|date=December 16, 2013|publisher=Routledge|isbn=9781136846342|page=13, Quote: "creation of a pothi in distinct Sikh script (Gurmukhi) seem to relate to the immediate religio–political context ..."|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=79ZcAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA13|accessdate=23 November 2016}}<br />{{cite book|last1=Mann|first1=Gurinder Singh|last2=Numrich|first2=Paul|last3=Williams|first3=Raymond|title=Buddhists, Hindus, and Sikhs in America|year=2007|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=New York|isbn=9780198044246|page=100, Quote: "He modified the existing writing systems of his time to create Gurmukhi, the script of the Sikhs; then ..."|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=8R-Kl2C1C7QC&pg=PA144 |accessdate=23 November 2016}}<br />{{cite journal|last1=Shani|first1=Giorgio|title=The Territorialization of Identity: Sikh Nationalism in the Diaspora|journal=Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism|volume=2|date=March 2002|page=11|doi=10.1111/j.1754-9469.2002.tb00014.x}}<br />{{cite book |author= Harjeet Singh Gill |editor1=Peter T. Daniels |editor2=William Bright |title=The World's Writing Systems |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ospMAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA395 |year=1996 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-507993-7 |page=395 }}</ref><ref name="Bright1996p395">{{cite book|author1=Peter T. Daniels|author2=William Bright|title=The World's Writing Systems |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ospMAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA395 |year=1996|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-507993-7|page=395}}</ref><ref name=jaincardona53/> ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ [[ਪੰਜਾਬ, ਭਾਰਤ|ਚੜ੍ਹਦੇ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਸੂਬੇ]] ਵਿੱਚ [[ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ]] ਲਈ ਅਫ਼ਸਰਾਨਾ ਲਿੱਪੀ ਹੈ,<ref name=jaincardona53/> ਜਿਸਨੂੰ ਫ਼ਾਰਸੀ-ਅਰਬੀ [[ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ]] ਲਿੱਪੀ ਵਿੱਚ ਵੀ ਲਿਖਿਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ।<ref name="Bright1996p395">{{cite book|author1=Peter T. Daniels|author2=William Bright|title=The World's Writing Systems |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ospMAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA395 |year=1996|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-507993-7|page=395}}</ref><ref name=jaincardona53>{{cite book|author1=Danesh Jain|author2=George Cardona|title=The Indo-Aryan Languages|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=OtCPAgAAQBAJ|year=2007|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-135-79711-9|page=53}}</ref> ਮੌਜੂਦਾ ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ ਦੇ ਬਤਾਲ਼ੀ ਅੱਖਰ, ਕਤਾਰ ਊੜੇ ਤੋਂ ਕੱਕੇ ਬਿੰਦੀ ਤੱਕ ਅਤੇ ਨੌ ਲਗਾ ਮਾਤਰਾ ਹਨ। ਇਹ ਬਤਾਲ਼ੀ ਹਰਫ਼ ਹਨ: {{lang|pa|[[ੳ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਅ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ੲ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਸ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਹ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਕ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਖ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਗ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਘ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਙ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਚ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਛ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਜ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਝ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਞ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਟ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਠ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਡ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਢ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਣ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਤ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਥ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਦ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਧ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਨ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਪ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਫ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਬ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਭ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਮ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਯ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਰ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਲ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਵ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ੜ]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਸ਼]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਖ਼]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਗ਼]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਜ਼]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਫ਼]]}}, {{lang|pa|[[ਲ਼]]}}, ਅਤੇ {{lang|pa|[[ਕ਼]]}}। [[ਸਿੱਖੀ]] ਦੇ ਮਾਝ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ, [[ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ]] ਨੂੰ ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ ਵਿੱਚ, ਕਈ ਜ਼ੁਬਾਨਾਜ਼ੁਬਾਨਾਂਂ ਅਤੇ ਲਹਿਜ਼ਿਆਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਲਿਖਿਆ ਹੈ ਜਿਸਨੂੰ ''ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ''<ref>Harnik Deol, ''Religion and Nationalism in India''. Routledge, 2000. {{ISBN|0-415-20108-X}}, 9780415201087. Page 22. "(...) the compositions in the Sikh holy book, Adi Granth, are a melange of various dialects, often coalesced under the generic title of ''Sant Bhasha''."<br />The making of Sikh scripture by Gurinder Singh Mann. Published by Oxford University Press US, 2001. {{ISBN|0-19-513024-3}}, {{ISBN|978-0-19-513024-9}} Page 5. "The language of the hymns recorded in the Adi Granth has been called ''Sant Bhasha,'' a kind of lingua franca used by the medieval saint-poets of northern India. But the broad range of contributors to the text produced a complex mix of regional dialects."<br />Surindar Singh Kohli, ''History of Punjabi Literature''. Page 48. National Book, 1993. {{ISBN|81-7116-141-3}}, {{ISBN|978-81-7116-141-6}}. "When we go through the hymns and compositions of the Guru written in ''Sant Bhasha'' (saint-language), it appears that some Indian saint of 16th century...."<br />Nirmal Dass, ''Songs of the Saints from the Adi Granth''. SUNY Press, 2000. {{ISBN|0-7914-4683-2}}, {{ISBN|978-0-7914-4683-6}}. Page 13. "Any attempt at translating songs from the Adi Granth certainly involves working not with one language, but several, along with dialectical differences. The languages used by the saints range from Sanskrit; regional Prakrits; western, eastern and southern Apabhramsa; and Sahiskriti. More particularly, we find sant bhasha, Marathi, Old Hindi, central and Lehndi Panjabi, Sgettland Persian. There are also many dialects deployed, such as Purbi Marwari, Bangru, Dakhni, Malwai, and Awadhi."</ref> ਆਖਿਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ।
 
==ਇਤਿਹਾਸ ਅਤੇ ਤਰੱਕੀ==