The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents German language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See German phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of German.

IPA Examples English approximation
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|b]] Ball[1] ball
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ç]] ich, durch hue
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|d]] dann[1] done
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|f]] Fass, Vogel fuss
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɡ]] Gast[1] guest
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|h]] hat hut
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|j]] ja yard
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|k]] kalt cold
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|l]] Last last
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|m]] Mast must
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|n]] Naht not
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ŋ]] lang long
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|p]] Pakt puck
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|pf]] Pfahl cupfull
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʁ]] Rast[2] roughly like loch (Scottish English)
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʀ]] No English equivalent
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|r]] roughly like water (American English)
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|s]] Hast fast
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʃ]] schal, Stein shall
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|t]] Tal tall
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ts]] Zahl cats
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|tʃ]] Matsch match
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|v]] was vanish
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|x]] Bach[3] loch (Scottish English)
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|z]] Hase[1] hose
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʔ]] beamtet[4]
the glottal stop in uh-oh!
Non-native consonants
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|dʒ]] Dschungel[1] jungle
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʒ]] Genie[1] pleasure
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ˈ]] Bahnhofstraße
as in battleship /ˈbætəlˌʃɪp/
IPA Examples English approximation
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|a]] Dach bra (but shorter)
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|aː]] Bahn bra
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|eː]] Beet face
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɛ]] Bett, hätte bed
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɛː]] wähle[5] says
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|iː]] viel feel
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɪ]] bist sit
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|oː]] Boot roughly like law (British English)
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɔ]] Post hospitality
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|øː]] Öl roughly like hurt
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|œ]] göttlich roughly like hurt
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|uː]] Hut true
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʊ]] Putz took
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|yː]] Rübe roughly like few
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʏ]] füllt much like the above but shorter
weit tie
Haut how
ɔʏ Heu, Räuber roughly like boy
Reduced vowels
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɐ]] Ober[2] fun
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ə]] halte comma (when pronounced without stress)
ɐ̯ Uhr[2] comma
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|i̯]] Studie studio
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|u̯]] aktuell actual
Non-native vowels[6]
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|e]] Methan (short [eː])
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|i]] vital city (short [iː])
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|o]] Moral (short [oː])
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ø]] Ökonom (short [øː])
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|u]] kulant (short [uː])
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|y]] Psychologie (short [yː])

ਹਵਾਲੇ ਸੋਧੋ

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 The German lenis consonants [b d ɡ z ʒ dʒ] are often pronounced without voice as [b̥ d̥ ɡ̊ z̥ ʒ̊ d̥ʒ̊]. In Southern German, the voiceless pronunciation prevails.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Pronunciation of /r/ in German varies according to region and speaker. While older prescriptive pronunciation dictionaries allowed only [r], this pronunciation is nowadays found mainly in Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria, while in other regions the uvular pronunciation prevails, with the allophones [ʁ] and [ʀ]. In many regions except for Switzerland, the /r/ in the syllable coda is vocalized to [ɐ̯] after long vowels or after all vowels, and /ər/ is pronounced as [ɐ]
  3. /x/ is realized as a uvular fricative [χ] after /a/, /aː/, and often /ʊ/, /ɔ/, and /aʊ/.
  4. In many varieties of German except for Swiss Standard German, all initial vowels are preceded by [ʔ].
  5. [ɛː] is often replaced by [eː].
  6. [e i o ø u y], the short versions of the long vowels [eː iː oː øː uː yː], are used in unstressed syllables before the accented syllable and occur only in loanwords. In native words, the accent is generally on the first syllable, and there are no syllables before the accent besides prepositional prefixes.

Bibliography ਸੋਧੋ

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