ਮਦਦ:ਲਾਤੀਨੀ ਲਈ IPA
The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Classical Latin and Ecclesiastical Latin pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. See Latin spelling and pronunciation for a more thorough look at the sounds of Latin.
- Latin distinguished geminated consonants, which were often written with a doubled letter: ਫਰਮਾ:Sm /ˈaːnʊs/, ਫਰਮਾ:Sm /ˈaːnnʊs/.
- The Latin alphabet was unicase until well after the Classical era. In inscriptions, square capitals, the ancestors of the modern upper case, were used. In keeping with this, this page uses small caps to display Latin.
- Over time, /k/, /ɡ/ and /sk/ were palatalized to [tʃ], [dʒ] and [ʃ] before the front vowels ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩, ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩, ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩, ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ and ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩.
- The phoneme represented by ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ may have also represented a bilabial [ɸ] in Early Latin or perhaps in free variation with [f].
- Generally silent. Sometimes medial ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ was pronounced [k] in Ecclesiatical Latin (e.g. ਫਰਮਾ:Sm), whereas it was silent in Classical Latin.
- The Latin letters ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ and ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ originally represented both vowels (/ɪ, iː/, /ʊ, uː/) and approximant consonants (/j/, /w/). In modern texts, the consonantal uses of ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ are sometimes changed to ⟨j⟩, and the vowel uses of ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ to ⟨u⟩.
- /j/ appears at the beginning of words before a vowel, or, typically, in the middle of the words between two vowels; in the latter case, the sound is usually geminate, and is sometimes spelled accordingly (for instance in Cicero and Julius Caesar): ਫਰਮਾ:Sm [juːs]; ਫਰਮਾ:Sm [ˈkujjʊs]. Since a geminate in the middle of a word makes the preceding syllable heavy, the vowel in that syllable is traditionally marked with a macron in dictionaries, although the vowel is usually short. Compound words preserve the /j/ of the element that begins with it, within reason: ਫਰਮਾ:Sm [adjekˈtiːwʊ̃]. Note that intervocalic ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ occasionally represented a separate syllabic vowel /ɪ, iː/, as in the praenomen [[Gaius|ਫਰਮਾ:Sm]] [ˈɡaː.ɪ.ʊs].
- ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ and ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ both represent /k/. In archaic inscriptions of Early Latin, ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ was primarily used before ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ and ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩, while ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ was used before ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩. However, in classical times, ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ had been replaced by ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩, except in a very small number of words.
- /l/ is thought to have had two allophones in Latin, comparable to many varieties of modern English. According to Allen, it was velarized [ɫ] as in English full at the end of a word or before another consonant; in other positions it was a plain alveolar lateral approximant [l] as in English look.
- It is likely that, by the Classical period, /m/ at the end of words was pronounced weakly, either voiceless or simply by nasalizing the preceding vowel. For instance ਫਰਮਾ:Sm "ten" was probably pronounced [ˈdɛkɛ̃]. In addition to the metrical features of Latin poetry, the fact that all such endings in words of more than two syllables lost the final ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ in the descendant Romance languages strengthens this hypothesis. For simplicity, and because this is not known for certain, ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ is always rendered as the phoneme /m/ here and in other references.
- Assimilated to velar [ŋ] before velar consonants /k, ɡ/.
- In the classical period, /kʷ/ became labio-palatalized [kᶣ] when followed by a front vowel /ɪ, iː, ɛ, eː/. Thus ਫਰਮਾ:Sm was realized as [kᶣiː].
- The Latin rhotic was either an alveolar trill [r], like Italian ⟨r⟩ or Spanish ⟨rr⟩, or maybe an alveolar tap [ɾ], with a tap of the tongue against the upper gums, as in Spanish ⟨r⟩.
- In Late and Ecclesiastical Latin, intervocalically /s/ is often voiced to [z].
- ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ remained /w/ when following ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩, ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ or ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩. In modern texts, /v/ is distinguished from the other sounds in writing, as ⟨V⟩ rather than ⟨U⟩.
- Classical Latin distinguished between long and short vowels, and the use of the apex, which indicates long vowels, was quite widespread during classical and postclassical times. In modern texts, long vowels are often indicated by a macron ⟨ā, ē, ī, ō, ū⟩, and short vowels are sometimes indicated by a breve ⟨ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ⟩. The length distinction began to fade by Late Latin.
- ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ was used in Greek loanwords with upsilon ⟨ϒ⟩, representing /ʏ/ or /yː/. Latin originally had no close front rounded vowel as a distinctive phoneme, and speakers tended to pronounce such loanwords with /ʊ/ and /uː/ (in archaic Latin) or /ɪ/ and /iː/ (in classical and late Latin) if they were unable to produce [ʏ] and [yː].
- A vowel followed by an ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ or ⟨ਫਰਮਾ:Sm⟩ at the end of certain syllables represents a nasal vowel. Such vowels undergo the same elision process as oral vowels.
- In words of two syllables, the stress is on the first syllable. In words of three or more syllables, the stress is on the penultimate syllable if this is heavy, otherwise on the antepenultimate syllable.