The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Chinese (also called Mandarin) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The representations of these sounds in the standard romanization (pinyin) are also shown.

See Standard Chinese phonology for more detail on the sounds of the language. Please note that English equivalents given in this page may only represent loose approximations to the original pronunciations.

IPA Pinyin English approximation
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɕ]] x she
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|f]] f fan
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|j]] y-, -i- you
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|k]] g skim
k[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʰ]] k cup
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|l]] l leaf
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|m]] m moon
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|n]] n-, -n noon
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ŋ]] -ng song
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|p]] b span
p[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʰ]] p pan
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɻ]] -r area (ends syllable)
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|s]] s see
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʂ]] sh show; Russian Ш Polish SZ
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|t]] d stand
t[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʰ]] t tan
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|tɕ]] j itchy
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʰ]] q cheer
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ts]] z pizza
ts[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʰ]] c tsunami (with t pronounced)
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|tʂ]] zh pitcher
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʰ]] ch church
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|w]] w-, -u- water
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|x]] h loch (Scottish English)
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɥ]] yu-, -ü-[lower-alpha 1] (simultaneous y and w); French nuit
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʐ]] r- pleasure; Russian Ж Polish Ż, RZ
IPA Pinyin English approximation
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|a]] a (a, an) roughly like cat
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɑ]] a (ang), e (er) car
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɛ]] e (ye), a (yan, yuan, ian) yes
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|œ]] e (yue) roughly like bird; German ö
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ə]] e (en[lower-alpha 2]) about
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɤ]] e (eng) roughly like Am.eng. sir
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|i]] yi/-i (yi, yin, ying) see
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɨ]] i (si, zi, ci, shi, zhi, chi, ri) glasses[lower-alpha 3]
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɔ]] o (wo, bo, po, mo, fo) war
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|u]] wu/-u shoe
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʊ]] o (ong) hook
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|y]] yu/-ü[lower-alpha 1] (yu, yun) somewhat like few; French tu
ai bye
ɑʊ ao now
ei[lower-alpha 2] day
ou[lower-alpha 2] no
Nasal vowels[lower-alpha 4]
ɑ̃ ang (angr) roughly like croissant
ə̃ eng (engr) roughly like uh-huh
ʊ̃ ong (ongr) roughly like own
IPA Pinyin Description
ǎ ɤ̌ á, é mid rising: ˧˥
â ɤ̂ à, è high falling: ˥˩
á ɤ́ ā, ē high: ˥
à, ɤ̀ ǎ, ě medially, low: ˩
initially, mid falling: ˧˩
finally, low rising: ˩˧
in isolation, dipping: ˧˩˧
a, ɤ a, e "toneless":
low after the high falling tone ˥˩ and the high tone ˥ ;
mid after all other tones
  1. 1.0 1.1 ü ([y], [ɥ]) is spelled u after j, q, x as [u], [w] cannot occur after these consonants.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 wei, you, wen are spelled ui, iu, un respectively in pinyin, but pronounced identically, when preceded by a consonant.
  3. Slightly "buzzing" vowels, and the frication of the preceding consonant may continue through the vowel. In si, zi, ci, the vowel may be a further back [ɯ].
  4. Only occurs in erhua and generally not considered part of the main vowel inventory.

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