The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Romanian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Romanian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Romanian and Romanian alphabet for the correspondence between spelling and pronunciation.

IPA Examples English approximation
b ban boy
d dop day
d͡ʒ[1] ger jeep
f foc face
ɡ gol, unghie good
h horn hat
k cal, chip, kilogram, quasar skip
l lună love
m mic moon
n nor name
ŋ[2] lung long
p pas span
r[3] rac, mare roughly like water (American English)
s sare sun
ʃ șarpe shape
t tare stop
t͡s[1] țară cats
t͡ʃ[1] cer texture
v val, watt voice
z zid zone
ʒ jar measure
Marginal consonants
ɲ Saligny roughly like canyon
IPA Examples English approximation
a a roughly like father
e[4] erou roughly like bet
[[Mid-central vowel#Mid-central unrounded vowel|ə]] ăsta about
i inel, mie beet
ɨ înspre, cârnat/cîrnat roses (for some dialects)
o[4] oraș law (British English)
u uda, dual soon
Marginal vowels
ø[4] bleu, loess roughly like sir
y ecru, fürer roughly like few
ɑ̃ Henri roughly like croissant
IPA Examples English approximation
j iarnă, creioane, rai, yacht you or boy
w băcăuan, dulău, tweeter wine or cow
e̯a beată short [e] followed by full [a]
e̯o vreo short [e] followed by full [o]
o̯a foarte, găoace short [o] followed by full [a]
Other symbols
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ dulău [duˈləw] Main stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ˌ extraordinar [ˌekstra.ordiˈnar] Secondary stress
. mie [ˈmi.e] Syllable marker, generally used between vowels in hiatus
ʲ rupi [ˈrupʲ] Palatalization (placed after the palatalized consonant)
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 The affricates are correctly written with tie-bars: [t͡s], [t͡ʃ], [d͡ʒ]. As the tie-bars display incorrectly with some fonts, they are often omitted. However, these affricates contrast with the plosive-fricative sequences [ts], [] and []. Usually the spelling of the Romanian word indicates the pronunciation, with the affricates spelled ț, c, g, with one letter, and the sequences ts, tș, dj, with two, but this is not always the case, especially in personal names.
  2. Not a separate phoneme, but an allophone of /n/ before velars.
  3. Intervocalic /r/ may be pronounced as a flap [ɾ].
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 The Romanian [e], [o] and [ø] are in fact realized as mid vowels: [e̞], [o̞], [ø̞]. In phonetic transcriptions, however, the lowering diacritic is usually omitted for simplicity.
  5. 5.0 5.1 The approximants /j/ and /w/ can appear before and after vowels, including the diphthongs /e̯a/ and /o̯a/, in almost any combination.

References ਸੋਧੋ

  • Chițoran, Ioana (2001), The Phonology of Romanian: A Constraint-based Approach, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3110167662

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