ਮਦਦ:ਸਪੇਨੀ ਲਈ IPA
- For terms that are more relevant to regions that have undergone yeísmo (so that, for example, hoya and holla are pronounced the same), words spelled with ⟨ll⟩ can be transcribed with [ʝ]
- For terms that are more relevant to regions with seseo, (so that, for example, caza and casa are pronounced the same), words spelled with ⟨z⟩ and with soft ⟨c⟩ (i.e. where ⟨c⟩ occurs before ⟨i⟩ or ⟨e⟩) can be transcribed with [s].
Transcriptions that deviate from Castilian Spanish should be marked as "local". See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.
See also ਸੋਧੋ
- /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ are fricatives or approximants ([β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts (Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003, p. 257-8).
- In metropolitan areas of the Iberian Peninsula and some Central American countries, /ʎ/ has merged into /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect. In Rioplatense Spanish, it has become [ʃ] or [ʒ]. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
- The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Word-finally, only /n/ (that may also be produced as [ŋ] or nasalization of the preceding vowel, depending on dialect) occurs.
- The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
- In Latin America, Canary Islands and some regions in Andalusia /θ/ has merged into /s/. See seseo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
- [x] is pronounced [h] in many dialects, in Andalusia, Canary Islands, and most of Latin America; like ham.
- Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
- In many dialects, /ʃ/ is replaced by [tʃ] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
- The Spanish /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of play (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
- The Spanish /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of saw; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
- In Spanish, the semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs though; e.g. aire, rey, auto, are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
- Some speakers may pronounce word initial [w] with an epenthetic /ɡ/; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].
- "Grapheme h". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. Real Academia Española.
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259
- Animations and video demonstrations of the IPA for Spanish by The Departments of Spanish and Portuguese, German, Speech Pathology and Audiology, and Academic Technologies at the University of Iowa.
- Spanish Phonetic Transcription Converter—Free Online Tool to convert Spanish Text to IPA Phonetic Transcription