The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Korean language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles, based on the standard dialect of South Korea.

See Korean phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Korean.

Korean consonants ਸੋਧੋ

IPA Hangul RR trans. English equivalent Notes
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|b]] [1] b ball between voiced sounds
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɕ]] s she before [i] or [j]
ɕ͈ ss see before [i] or [j]
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|d]] [2] d doll between voiced sounds
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|dʑ]] j gee between voiced sounds
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɡ]] g gall between voiced sounds
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|h]] h hall
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|j]] ㅖ, ㅒ, ㅑ,
ㅛ, ㅠ, ㅕ[3]
y y’all Spelled by doubling the short line on the vowel.
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|k]] ㄱ, ㅋ g, k skin ㅋ is [k] at the end of a syllable.
kk tense [k]
ㅋ, ㅎㄱ k call
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|l]] ㄹ, ㄴ l lip ㄹ is [l] at the end of a syllable.
ㄹㄴ and ㄴㄹ may be [ll].
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|m]] ㅁ, ㅂ m mall ㅂ is [m] before [n] or [m].
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|n]] ㄴ, ㄹ,
ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ
n not ㄹ may be [n] at the start of a word.
ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ are [n] before [n] or [m].
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ŋ]] ㅇ, ㄱ ng king ㅇ is only [ŋ] at the end of a syllable.
ㄱ is [ŋ] before [n], [m] or [ɾ]
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|p]] [1], ㅍ b, p span ㅍ is [p] at the end of a syllable.
[1] pp tense [p]
[1], ㅎㅂ p pall
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɾ]] r A flap, like Scots r or American ladder, between vowels
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|s]] [2] s Saul [s] with almost no sibilance
ss tense [s]
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|t]] [2]
ㄷ, ㅌ[2], ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ
stall All are [t] and RR t at the end of a syllable.
tt tense [t]
[2], ㅎㄷ t tall
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|tɕ]] j itchy
tɕ͈ jj tense []
tɕʰ ㅊ, ㅎㅈ ch cheek
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|w]] ㅜ, ㅗ w wall spelled ㅜ before [ʌ], [e], [i];
ㅗ before [ɛ], [e],* [a]
*ㅚ is pronounced [we] by most, but as the rounded ö vowel [ø] by some older speakers.

Korean vowels ਸੋਧੋ

IPA Hangul RR trans. Notes
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|a]] a spa
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|e]] e Similar to the beginning of the diphthong in main
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɛ]] ae met; similar to e for young speakers.
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|i]] i mean
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|o]] o Spanish o or French eau
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|u]] u moon
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ʌ]] eo young (these are pronounced [ɔ], as in more, in North Korea)
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ɯ]] eu Separate sound in Standard Korean; similar to eo for many dialects.

Korean diphthongs ਸੋਧੋ

IPA Hangul RR trans. Notes
ɰi ui Only occurs in the first syllable of a word.

Sounds not written in hangul ਸੋਧੋ

IPA Explanation
[[ਫਰਮਾ:IPAsym|ː]] Long vowel. Long [ʌ] is əː. Young speakers in Seoul do not use length consistently, if at all.
 ́ High tone, on any one syllable or the first two; used outside Seoul.

References ਸੋਧੋ

ਹਵਾਲੇ ਸੋਧੋ

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Sohn, (2001), p.2
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Sohn, (2001), p.3
  3. Lee, (2002), p.3

Bibliography ਸੋਧੋ

  • IPA (1949, 51, etc.). "The Principles of IPA". London.
  • Lee, H.B. (1971). "Preliminary Version of Korean Phonetic Alphabet" (in Korean), HanGeul Haghoe (the Korean Language SocietY), Seoul.
  • Lee, H.B. (1981), "IPA and Korean Phonetic Alphabet" (in Korean), Gwahagsa, Seoul.
  • Lee, H.B. (1992), "International Korean Phonetic Alphabet - Theory and Application-" .(in Korean) "Malsori" No. 21-24, The Phonetic Society of Korea.
  • Lee, H.B. (1999), "International Korean Phonetic Alphabet for Computers", International Conference on the Computer Processing of Korean Language, Yanbi an, China.
  • Lee, H.B. (1999). An IPA Illustration of Korean, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. IPA.
  • Lee, Hyun-Bok (1999) "Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: a guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet", Cambridge University Press, pp.121–123 ISBN 0521637511
  • Lee, Hyun-Bok (2004) "In search of a universal phonetic alphabet - theory and application of an organic visible speech-", In INTERSPEECH-2004, paper P3.
  • Sohn, Ho-min, (2006) "Korean language in culture and society" KLEAR textbooks in Korean language, University of Hawaii Press, pp.4–5. ISBN 0824826949

External links ਸੋਧੋ