# ਮਦਦ:Wiki markup

Shortcuts:

Wiki markup, also known as wikitext or wikicode, consists of the syntax and keywords used by the MediaWiki software to format a page. To learn how to see this markup, and to save an edit, see: Help:Editing. There is a short list of markup and tips at Help:Cheatsheet.

In addition to wiki markup, some HTML elements are also allowed for presentation formatting. See Help:HTML in wikitext for information on this.

## Layout

### Sections

The = through ====== markup are headings for the sections with which they are associated.

• A single = is styled as the article title and should not be used within an article.
• Headings are styled through CSS and add an  link.
• Do not use any markup after the final heading markup – this will either break the heading, or will cause the heading to not be included in an edit summary.
Markup Renders as
== Section ==
Section
=== Subsection ===
Subsection
==== Sub-subsection ====
Sub-subsection

And so on.

Wiki headings translate to HTML heading elements, <h1> through <h6>, styled as follows by default:

Templates: {{fake heading}} for use in documentation.

#### Horizontal rule

The horizontal rule represents a paragraph-level thematic break. Do not use in article content, as rules are only used after main sections, and this is automatic.

Markup Renders as
----

HTML equivalent: <hr />

When a page has at least four headings, a table of contents (TOC) will automatically appear after the lead and before the first heading. The TOC can be controlled by magic words or templates:

• __FORCETOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the normal location regardless of the number of headings.
• __TOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the point where the magic word is inserted instead of the normal location.
• __NOTOC__ disables the TOC entirely.
• {{TOC limit}} can be used to control the depth of subsections included in the TOC. This is useful where the TOC is long and unwieldy.

### Line breaks

Line breaks or newlines are used to add whitespace between lines, such as separating paragraphs.

• A line break that is visible in the content is inserted by pressing Enter twice.
• Pressing Enter once will place a line break in the markup, but it will not show in the rendered content, except when using list markup.
• Markup such as bold or italics will be terminated at a line break.
Markup Renders as
A single newline here
has no effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph,
or ends a list or an indented part.


ਫਰਮਾ:Crlf2 A single newline here has no effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph, or ends a list or an indented part.

HTML equivalent: <br> or <br />

Templates:

• {{break}} adds multiple line breaks.
• {{-}} and {{clear}} adds a break with styling, to clear floating elements.
• {{plainlist}} and {{unbulleted list}} both create an unbulleted list.

### Indent text

Indentation is most commonly used on talk pages.

Markup Renders as
Indentation as used on talk pages:
:Each colon at the start of a line
::causes the line to be indented by three more character positions.
:::(The indentation persists
so long as no carriage return or line break is used.)
:::Repeat the indentation at any line break.
::::Use an extra colon for each response.
:::::And so forth ...
::::::And so on ...
{{Outdent|::::::}}The outdent template can give a visual indicator that we're deliberately cancelling the indent (6 levels here)

Indentation as used on talk pages:

Each colon at the start of a line
causes the line to be indented by three more character positions.
(The indentation persists

so long as no carriage return or line break is used.)

Repeat the indentation at any line break.
Use an extra colon for each response.
And so forth ...
And so on ...

ਫਰਮਾ:OutdentThe outdent template can give a visual indicator that we're deliberately cancelling the indent (6 levels here)

Templates: {{outdent}}, {{outdent2}}

### Blockquote

When there is a need for separating a block of text. This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text.

Markup Renders as
<blockquote>
The '''blockquote''' tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.
</blockquote>


The blockquote tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.

### Center text

Markup Renders as
<div class="center" style="width: auto; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">Centered text</div>
Centered text

Template {{center}} uses the same markup. To center a table, see Help:Table#Centering tables. Please do not use <center>...</center>, as it is obsolete.

### Align text to right

You can align content in a separate container:

Markup Renders as
<div style="text-align: right; direction: ltr; margin-left: 1em;">Text on the right</div>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
Text on the right
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

Or; make the text float around it:

Markup Renders as
<div class="floatright">Text on the right</div>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
Text on the right
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
{{stack|Text on the right}}
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
 Text on the right
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

### Lists

Do not leave blank lines between items in a list unless there is a reason to do so, since this causes the MediaWiki software to interpret each item as beginning a new list.

#### Unordered lists

Markup Renders as
* Item1
* Item2
* Item3
* Item4
** Sub-item 4 a)
*** Sub-item 4 a) 1.
**** Sub-item 4 a) 1. i)
**** Sub-item 4 a) 1. ii)
** Sub-item 4 b)
* Item5
• Item1
• Item2
• Item3
• Item4
• Sub-item 4 a)
• Sub-item 4 a) 1.
• Sub-item 4 a) 1. i)
• Sub-item 4 a) 1. ii)
• Sub-item 4 b)
• Item5

#### Ordered lists

Markup Renders as
# Item1
# Item2
# Item3
# Item4
## Sub-item 1
### Sub-sub-item
#### Sub-sub-sub-item
## Sub-item 2
# Item5

1. Item1
2. Item2
3. Item3
4. Item4
1. Sub-item 1
1. Sub-sub-item
1. Sub-sub-sub-item
2. Sub-item 2
5. Item5

#### Description lists

Shortcut:

To list terms and definitions, start a new line with a semicolon (;) followed by the term. Then, type a colon (:) followed by a definition. The format can also be used for other purposes, such as make and models of vehicles, etc.

Description lists (formerly definition lists, and a.k.a. association lists) consist of group names corresponding to values. Group names (terms) are in bold. Values (definitions) are indented. Each group must include one or more definitions. For a single or first value, the : can be placed on the same line after ; – but subsequent values must be placed on separate lines.

Do not use a semicolon (;) simply to bold a line without defining a value using a colon (:). This usage renders invalid HTML5 and creates issues with screen readers.

Markup Renders as
; Term : Definition1
Term
Definition1
; Term
: Definition1
: Definition2
: Definition3
: Definition4
Term
Definition1
Definition2
Definition3
Definition4

HTML equivalent: <dl> <dt>...</dt>, <dd>...</dd> </dl>

Templates: {{defn}}

### Retaining newlines and spaces

Shortcut:

The MediaWiki software suppresses single newlines and converts lines starting with a space to preformatted text in a dashed box. HTML suppresses multiple spaces. It is often desirable to retain these elements for poems, lyrics, mottoes, oaths and the like. The Poem extension adds HTML-like <poem>...</poem> tags to maintain newlines and spaces. These tags may be used inside other tags such as <blockquote>...</blockquote>. CSS styles may be applied to this tag, e.g.: <poem style="margin-left: 2em;">.

Markup Renders as
<poem>
A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.
</poem>

A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.

## Format

### Text formatting

Description What you type What it looks like

italics, bold, small capital letters

To ''italicize text'', put two
consecutive apostrophes on each side
of it.

Three apostrophes each side will
'''bold the text'''.

Five consecutive apostrophes on each
side (two for italics plus three for
bold) produces '''''bold italics'''''.

'''''Italic and bold formatting'''''
only works correctly within a single
line.

For text as {{smallcaps|small caps}},
use the template {{tl|smallcaps}}.


To italicize text, put two consecutive apostrophes on each side of it.

Three apostrophes each side will bold the text.

Five consecutive apostrophes on each side (two for italics plus three for bold) produces bold italics.

Italic and bold formatting only works correctly within a single line.

For text as small caps, use the template {{smallcaps}}.

Small chunks of source code within a line of normal text.

Code is displayed in a monospace font.

function <code>int m2()</code> is nice.

function int m2() is nice.

Syntax highlighting for source code.

Computer code has colored text and more stringent formatting. For example, to define a function: int m2(), with highlights.

<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp">
#include <iostream>
int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {
std::cout <<"Hello World!";
return 0;
}</syntaxhighlight>
#include <iostream>
int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {
std::cout <<"Hello World!";
return 0;
}


Small text

Use <small>small text</small> only
when necessary.


Use small text only when necessary.

a <small> span

To match, for example, the font-size
used in an [[Help:Visual file
markup#Caption|image caption]],
the "small" tag can also be used to
<small style="font-size:87%;">reduce
a text's font-size to 87%</small>.


To match, for example, the font-size used in an image caption, the "small" tag can also be used to reduce a text's font-size to 87%.

Big text

Better not use <big>big text</big>,
unless <small>it's <big>within</big>
small</small> text.


Better not use big text, unless it's within small text.

To prevent two words from becoming separated by a linewrap (e.g. Mr. Smith or 400 km/h) a non-breaking space, sometimes also called a "non-printing character", may be used between them. (For three or more words, the template {{nowrap}} is probably more suitable.)

Mr.&nbsp;Smith or 400&nbsp;km/h

Mr. Smith or 400 km/h

Extra spacing within text is usually best achieved using the {{pad}} template.

Mary {{pad|4.0em}} had a little lamb.

### Special characters

Special characters can often be displayed using numeric character references or character entity references. See Character encodings in HTML for more information. For example &Agrave; and &#xC0; both render À (A-grave). Percent-encoding can't be used, as it only works in URLs.

#### Diacritical marks

Diacritic marks, using character entity references.

What you type What it looks like
&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; &AElig;

&Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;

&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde;

&Ograve; &Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &OElig;

&Ugrave; &Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &Yuml; &szlig;

&agrave; &aacute; &acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;

&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml;

&igrave; &iacute; &icirc; &iuml; &ntilde;

&ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &oelig;

&ugrave; &uacute; &ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ

Ç È É Ê Ë

Ì Í Î Ï Ñ

Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Œ

Ù Ú Û Ü Ÿ ß

à á â ã ä å æ ç

è é ê ë

ì í î ï ñ

ò ó ô õ ö ø œ

ù ú û ü ÿ

#### Punctuation special characters

Using character entity references.

What you type What it looks like
&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;

&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;

&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;

&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;

&apos; &quot;


¿ ¡ § ¶

† ‡ • – —

‹ › « »

‘ ’ “ ”

' "

#### Escaping punctuation characters

The <pre> and <nowiki> markup tags are also available, for writing "[", "{", "&", "}", "]" for example. These tags prevent these characters from being recognised as wiki markup, which is a possibility in some circumstances.

#### Commercial symbols

Using character entity references.

What you type What it looks like
&trade; &copy; &reg;

&cent; &euro; &yen; &pound; &curren;


¢ € ¥ £ ¤

#### Greek characters

Using character entity references.

What you type What it looks like
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;

&Alpha; &Beta; &Gamma; &Delta; &Epsilon; &Zeta;

&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;

&Eta; &Theta; &Iota; &Kappa; &Lambda; &Mu; &Nu;

&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;

&Xi; &Omicron; &Pi; &Rho; &Sigma;

&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;

&Tau; &Upsilon; &Phi; &Chi; &Psi; &Omega;


α β γ δ ε ζ

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ

η θ ι κ λ μ ν

Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν

ξ ο π ρ σ ς

Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ

τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

#### Egyptian hieroglyphs

WikiHiero is a software extension that renders Egyptian hieroglyphs as PNG images using <hiero> tags.

Example:

Markup Renders as
<hiero>P2</hiero>

#### Chess symbols

For example, &#9812; displays ♔

#### Subscripts and superscripts

• The Manual of Style prefers the <sub> and <sup> formats, for example x<sub>1</sub>. So this should be used under most circumstances.
• The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines.
Description What you type What it looks like

Subscripts

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or

x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;

x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;


x1 x2 x3 or

x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄

x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or

x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;

x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;


x1 x2 x3 or

x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴

x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

Combined

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> = 8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup> C&sup2; / J m

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E+4 m&sup2;]]


ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m

#### Characters in the Private Use Area, and invisible formatting characters

Invisible and PUA (Private Use Areas) characters should be avoided where possible. When needed, they should both be substituted with their (hexa)decimal code values (as "&#(x)...;"). This renders invisible characters visible, for manual editing, and allows AWB to process pages with PUA characters. The latter should also be tagged with the {{PUA}} template for tracking and future maintenance.

### Mathematical characters and formulae

#### Mathematical characters

What you type What it looks like
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; ∫ ∑ ∏ √
&minus; &plusmn; &infin; − ± ∞
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; ≈ ∝ ≡ ≠
&le; &ge; ≤ ≥
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; × · ÷ ∂
&prime; &Prime; ′ ″
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; ∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ
&oslash; ø
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; ∈ ∉ ∩ ∪
&sub; &sup; &sube; &supe; ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; ¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr; ⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔
&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr; → ↓ ↑ ← ↔

#### Mathematical formulae

• Formulae that include mathematical letters, like x, and operators like × should not use the plain letter x. See math font formatting. For a comprehensive set of symbols, and comparison between $ tags and the {{math}} template see section TeX vs HTML. • The [itex] tag typesets using LaTeX markup, which may render as an image or as HTML, depending on environmental settings. The [itex] tag is best for the complex formula on its own line in an image format. If you use this tag to put a formula in the line with text, put it in the {{nowrap}} template. • The {{math}} template uses HTML, and will size-match a serif font, and will also prevent line-wrap. All templates are sensitive to the = sign, so remember to replace = with {{=}} in template input, or start the input with 1=. Use wikimarkup '' and ''' inside the {{math}} template, as well as other HTML entities. The {{math}} template is best for typeset formulas in line with the text. Markup Renders as [itex]2x \times 4y \div 6z + 8 - \frac {y}{z^2} = 0$
{{crlf|}}

{{math|2x &times; 4y &divide;
6z + 8 &minus; {{Fraction
|y|z<sup>2</sup>}} {{=}} 0}}

$\sin 2\pi x + \ln e$
{{math|sin 2&pi;''x'' + ln ''e''}}


${\displaystyle 2x\times 4y\div 6z+8-{\frac {y}{z^{2}}}=0}$  ਫਰਮਾ:Crlf

2x × 4y ÷ 6z + 8 − ​yz2 = 0

${\displaystyle \sin 2\pi x+\ln e}$ ਫਰਮਾ:Crlf sin 2πx + ln e

#### Spacing in simple math formulae

• Using &nbsp; to prevent line break is not needed; the {{math}} template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <br /> if you need an explicit line break inside a formula.
Markup Renders as
It follows that {{math|''x''<sup>2</sup> &ge; 0}} for real {{mvar|x}}.

It follows that x2 ≥ 0 for real x.

#### Complicated formulae

• See Help:Displaying a formula for how to use $. • A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character. Markup Renders as : [itex]\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$
${\displaystyle \sum _{n=0}^{\infty }{\frac {x^{n}}{n!}}}$

In Wikipedia and some other wikis, free links are used in wikitext markup to produce internal links between pages, as opposed to the concept of CamelCase for the same purpose, which was used in the early days of Wikipedia – see CamelCase and Wikipedia.

In Wikipedia's markup language, you create free links by putting double square brackets around text designating the title of the page you want to link to. Thus, [[Texas]] will be rendered as Texas. Optionally, you can use a vertical bar (|) to customize the link title. For example, typing [[Texas|Lone Star State]] will produce Lone Star State, a link that is displayed as "Lone Star State" but in fact links to Texas.

#### Link to another wiki article

• Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
• Thus the link hereafter is to the Web address en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also Canonicalization.
• A red link is a page that doesn't exist yet; it can be created by clicking on the link.
• A link to its own page will appear only as bold text.
Markup Renders as
London has [[public transport]].

London has public transport.

Link to this article: "[[Help:Wiki markup]]" will appear only as bold text.

• Same target, different name.
• The target ("piped") text must be placed first, then the text to be displayed second.
What you type What it looks like

New York also has [[public transport|public transportation]].

New York also has public transportation.

• Simply typing the pipe character | after a link will automatically rename the link in certain circumstances. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page.
• See Pipe trick for details.
Description What you type What it looks like

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses

[[kingdom (biology)|]]

Automatically hide the comma and following text [[Seattle, Washington|]] Seattle

Automatically hide namespace

[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]]

Or both

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style (headings)|]]

But this doesn't work for section links

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]

• Endings are blended into the link.
• Exception: a trailing apostrophe (') and any characters following the apostrophe are not blended.
• Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
• Blending can be suppressed by using the <nowiki /> tag, which may be desirable in some instances.
Description What you type What it looks like

Blending active

San Francisco also has [[public transport]]ation. Examples include [[bus]]es, [[taxicab]]s, and [[tram]]s.

San Francisco also has public transportation. Examples include buses, taxicabs, and trams.

Blending suppressed

A [[micro-]]<nowiki />second.

A micro-second

#### Link to a section of a page

• The part after the hash sign (#) must match a section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation. Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the beginning of the page.
• Include "| link title" to create a stylish (piped) link title.
• If sections have the same title, add a number to link to any but the first. #Example section 3 goes to the third section named "Example section". You can use the pipe and retype the section title to display the text without the # symbol.
What you type What it looks like

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics]] is a link to a section within another page.

Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics is a link to a section within another page.

[[#Links and URLs]] is a link to another section on the current page. [[#Links and URLs|Links and URLs]] is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

#Links and URLs is a link to another section on the current page. Links and URLs is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics]] is a piped link to a section within another page.

Italics is a piped link to a section within another page.

• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
• For more information, see starting an article and check out Wikipedia's naming conventions.
• Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
Description What you type What it looks like

Links to pages that don’t exist yet look red.

The article about [[cardboard sandwiches]] doesn't exist yet.

The article about cardboard sandwiches doesn't exist yet.

### Redirects

• Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
• It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the United States page, if it exists.
Description What you type

Redirect to an article

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

Redirect to a section

#REDIRECT [[United States#History]]

• The full page name should be included in double square brackets.
What you type What it looks like

See the [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].

See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.

• To link to a corresponding page in another language, use the form: [[language code:Foreign title]].
• It is recommended interlanguage links be placed at the very end of the article.
• Interlanguage links are not visible within the formatted article, but instead appear as language links on the sidebar (to the left) under the menu section "languages".
Description What you type

Link from English article "Plankton" to the Spanish article "Plancton".

"es" is the language code for "español" (the Spanish language).

[[es:Plancton]]


Other examples: French (fr for français), German (de for Deutsch), Russian (ru), and simple English (simple).

[[fr:Plancton]]
[[de:Plankton]]
[[ru:Планктон]]
[[simple:Plankton]]


Description What you type What it looks like

Linking to a page on another wiki in English.

All of these forms lead to the URL http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Hello.

Without prefix.

[[Wiktionary:Hello]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|Wiktionary definition of "Hello"]]

Linking to a page on another wiki in another language.

All of these forms lead to the URL http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/bonjour.

Without prefix.

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]

### Categories

• To put an article in a category, place a link like [[Category:Example]] into the article. As with interlanguage links, placing these links at the end of the article is recommended.
• To link to a category page without putting the article into the category, use a colon prefix (":Category") in the link.
Description What you type What it looks like

Categorize an article.

[[Category:Character sets]]

[[:Category:Character sets]]

Without prefix.

[[:Category:Character sets|]]

## Pronunciation aids

It is often desirable to provide an aid to pronunciation for a word. The IPAc-en and Respell templates can be of assistance.

What you type What it looks like

'''Konjac''' {{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}}

Konjac ਅੰਗਰੇਜ਼ੀ ਉਚਾਰਨ: /ˈknjæk/

'''Konjac''' ({{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}} {{respell|KOHN|yak}})

Konjac (ਅੰਗਰੇਜ਼ੀ ਉਚਾਰਨ: /ˈknjæk/ KOHN-yak)

''Konjac'' is pronounced {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}} in English.

Konjac is pronounced in English.

## Musical notation

Musical notation is added by using the <score>...</score> extension tag. For example:

Markup Renders as
<score>\relative c' { fis d fis a d f e d c cis d e a g f ees }</score>

## Images

Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.

See the Wikipedia's image use policy for the policy used on Wikipedia.

For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the picture tutorial and extended image syntax.

What you type What it looks like Notes
A picture:
[[File:wiki.png]]
A picture:

With alternative text:
[[File:wiki.png|alt=Puzzle globe logo]]
With alternative text:

• Alternative text, used when the image is unavailable or when the image is loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternative text for images for help on choosing it.
With link:
[[File:wiki.png|link=Wikipedia]]
• The link directs to a page, Wikipedia, instead of the file.
Floating to the right side of the page
using the ''frame'' attribute and a caption:
[[File:wiki.png|frame|alt=Puzzle globe|Wikipedia logo]]
Floating to the right side of the page using the frame attribute and a caption:

Wikipedia logo
• The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
• The last parameter is the caption that appears below the image.
Floating to the right side of the page
using the ''thumb'' attribute and a caption:
[[File:wiki.png|thumb|alt=Puzzle globe|Wikipedia logo]]
Floating to the right side of the page using the thumb attribute and a caption:

Wikipedia logo
• The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
• An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
Floating to the right side of the page
''without'' a caption:
[[File:wiki.png|right|Wikipedia encyclopedia]]
Floating to the right side of the page without a caption:
A picture resized to 30 pixels...
[[File:wiki.png|30 px|Wikipedia encyclopedia]]
A picture resized to 30 pixels...

Linking directly to the description page of an image:
[[:File:wiki.png]]
Linking directly to the description page of an image:
• Clicking on an image displayed normally on a page also leads to the description page.
Linking directly to an image without displaying it:
[[Media:wiki.png|Image of jigsaw globe]]
Linking directly to an image without displaying it:
Example:
<div style="display: inline; width: 220px; float: right;">
Place images here </div>


Example:

Place images here

Using the span or div elements to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text).

Example:

{| align=right
|-
|
Place images here
|}

Example:

 Place images here

Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers).

## Tables

There are two ways to build tables:

• In special wiki-markup (see Help:Table).
• Using HTML elements: <table>, <tr>, <td> or <th>.

## References and citing sources

Making a reference citing a printed or online source can be accomplished by using the <ref>...</ref> tags. Inside these tags details about the reference are added.

Details about the citation can be provided using a structure provided by various templates; the table below lists some typical citation components.

What it's for What you type
To create the reference <ref name="name for reference">Use a closing tag</ref>
To cite a book {{cite book}}
To cite a web source {{cite web}}
Book ISBN |isbn=0-4397-0818-4 (ISBN of the book)
Web URL |url=http://www.wikipedia.org
Title |title=title of source
Author |author=authors, use commas for multiple
First name |first=first name
Last name |last=last name
Location |location=location of publisher
Publisher |publisher=who published the source
Date |date=2007-09-21 (date of source)
Year |year=year of source
Accessed date |accessdate=2008-12-25 (only if url= is included)
A complete reference tag <ref name="WikiMarkup">{{cite web |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup |title=Help:Wiki markup |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation}}</ref>
Referencing this again <ref name="WikiMarkup" />
Citation needed {{Citation needed|{{subst:DATE}}}}

## Templates and transcluding pages

Examples for templates: {{pad|...}}, {{math|...}}, {{as of|...}}, {{edit}}

Templates are segments of wiki markup that are meant to be copied automatically ("transcluded") into a page. You add them by putting the template's name in {{double braces}}. It is also possible to transclude other pages by using {{:colon and double braces}}.

There are three pairs of tags that can be used in wikitext to control how transclusion affects parts of a template or article. They determine whether or not wikitext renders, either in its own article, which we will call "here", or in another article where it is transcluded, which we will call "there".

• <noinclude>: the content will not be rendered there. These tags have no effect here.
• <includeonly>: the content will render only there, and will not render here (like invisible ink made visible by means of transclusion).
• <onlyinclude>: the content will render here and will render there, but it will only render there what is between these tags.

There can be several such section "elements". Also, they can be nested. All possible renderings are achievable. For example, to render there one or more sections of the page here use <onlyinclude> tags. To append text there, wrap the addition in <includeonly> tags before, within, or after the section. To omit portions of the section, nest <noinclude> tags within it.

If a page is transcluded without transclusion markup, it may cause an unintentional categorization. Any page transcluding it will contain the same category as the original page. Wrap the category markup with <noinclude> tags to prevent incorrect categorization.

Some templates take parameters, as well, which you separate with the pipe character |.

What you type What it looks like
{{Transclusion demo}}
{{Help:Transclusion demo}}
This template takes two parameters,
and creates underlined text with a
hover box for many modern browsers
supporting CSS:

{{H:title|This is the hover text|
Hover your mouse over this text}}

template itself: {{tl|H:title}}


This template takes two parameters, and creates underlined text with a hover box for many modern browsers supporting CSS:

Hover your mouse over this text

## Talk and project pages

These are likely to be helpful on talk and project pages.

• The tilde character (~) is used when signing a comment on a talk page. Your username provides a link to your user page.
Description What you type What it looks like

~~~~

Username (talk) 19:38, 6 ਅਕਤੂਬਰ 2022 (UTC)

~~~

Adding five tildes gives the date/time alone.

~~~~~

19:38, 6 ਅਕਤੂਬਰ 2022 (UTC)

### Linking to old revisions of pages, diffs, and specific history pages

• The external link function is mainly used for these. Open an old revision or diff, and copy the URL from the address bar, pasting it where you want it.
What you type What it looks like

[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup&diff=330350877&oldid=330349143 Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877]

• You can also use an internal diff link. Unlike the template {{diff}}, this kind of link can even be used in edit summaries.
What you type What it looks like

[[Special:Diff/330349143/330350877|Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877]]

• If the diff intended to be shown is between an immediately previous revision, the first parameter can be dropped.
What you type What it looks like

[[Special:Diff/330350877|Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877]]

• For an old revision, you can also use a permalink. Though here only the main text is guaranteed to be retained (images and templates will be shown as they are today, not as they were at the time).
What you type What it looks like

[[Special:Permalink/330350877|Revision 330350877]]

• The following markup can be used. For example, for the article Beetroot:
What you type What it looks like

[[Special:WhatLinksHere/Beetroot]]

[[Special:RecentChangesLinked/Beetroot]]

### User edits

Description What you type What it looks like
Username (registered users). [[Special:Contributions/UserName]] Special:Contributions/UserName
IPv4 address (unregistered users). [[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]] Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0
IPv6 address (unregistered users). [[Special:Contributions/2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329]] Special:Contributions/2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329

### Coloring and highlighting text

What you type What it looks like

I will change the color in {{color|blue|the middle part of}} this sentence.

I will change the color in the middle part of this sentence.

This is how to {{Font color||yellow|highlight part of a sentence}}.

This is how to highlight part of a sentence.

### Show deleted or inserted text

• When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted content:
• It is best to indicate deleted content using the strike-through markup <s>...</s>.
• It is best to indicate inserted content using the underline markup <u>...</u>.
• When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes, and do not mark them up in any special way. However, when the article itself discusses deleted or inserted content, such as an amendment to a statute:
• It is best to indicate deleted content using the strike-through markup <del>...</del>.
• It is best to indicate inserted content using the underline markup <ins>...</ins>.

Note: <s></s> and <u></u> (speced in HTML 3 & 4) are considerably more popular than <del></del> and <ins></ins> (speced in HTML 5) on Wikipedia.

What you type What it looks like

You can <del>strike out deleted material</del> and <ins>underline new material</ins>.

You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

Alternative markup:

You can <s>strike out deleted material</s> and <u>underline new material</u>.

You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

## Limiting formatting / escaping wiki markup

A few different kinds of formatting will tell the wiki to display things as you typed them – what you see is what you get!

What you type What it looks like
'''&lt;nowiki&gt; tag:'''

<nowiki>
The nowiki tag ignores [[wiki]]
''markup''. It reformats text by
removing newlines and multiple
spaces. It still interprets
characters specified by
&name;: &rarr;
</nowiki>

<nowiki> tag:

The nowiki tag ignores [[wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets characters specified by &name;: →

'''&lt;pre&gt; tag:'''

<pre>The <pre> tag ignores [[wiki]]
''markup'' as does the <nowiki>
in a mono-spaced font, and does
not  reformat    text    spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: &rarr;
</pre>

<pre> tag:

The <pre> tag ignores [[wiki]]
''markup'' as does the <nowiki>
in a mono-spaced font, and does
not  reformat    text    spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: →
'''[Text without a URL]:'''

Single square brackets holding
[text without a HTTP URL] are
preserved, but single square
brackets containing a URL are
treated as being an external
[http://example.com/ Web link].

[Text without a URL]:

Single square brackets holding [text without a HTTP URL] are preserved, but single square brackets containing a URL are treated as being an external Web link.

'''Leading space:'''

to preserve formatting.
Putting a space at the
beginning of each line
stops the text   from
being reformatted.
It still interprets [[wiki]]
''markup'' and special characters: &amp;rarr;


Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the
beginning of each line
stops the text   from
being reformatted.
It still interprets wiki
markup and special characters: →


### Nowiki

Shortcuts:

<nowiki>...</nowiki> and <nowiki /> tags stop parsing of wiki markup, except HTML character entity references (e.g., for special characters). Unlike <pre>, "nowiki" doesn't change formatting.

An example of <nowiki>...</nowiki>:

Markup Renders as
<nowiki>{{cite book}}</nowiki>

{{cite book}}

(However in this particular case probably you prefer {{tl|cite book}} to create a link as {{cite book}}, or {{tlf|cite book}} prints {{cite book}}.)

A singular <nowiki /> can be used to break wikimarkup.

• Markup such as *, #, ; and : only and always take effect at the beginning of a line. A <nowiki /> before the markup will cause the characters to not parse as markup.
• An internal link immediately followed by characters are blended to form a single link. Where this is not desired, add a <nowiki /> after the link.
• HTML(-like) tags can be stopped parsing by inserting <nowiki /> after the opening angle bracket.
<nowiki /> examples
Markup Renders as
* Unordered list
• Unordered list
<nowiki />* Unordered list

ਫਰਮਾ:Crlf2 * Unordered list

A [[micro-]]second.
A [[micro-]]<nowiki />second.

A micro-second.

'<nowiki />'We don't want italics.'<nowiki />'

''We don't want italics.''

[[<nowiki />Example]]

[[Example]]

[<nowiki />[[Example]]]
No <<nowiki />br />line break. But for tag pairs, you need nowiki for the closing tag, too. <<nowiki />pre>The following /pre is gone!</pre>
No <br />line break. But for tag pairs, you need nowiki for the closing tag, too. <pre>The following /pre is gone!

If you want to write tags, {{tag}} template is handy. E.g. {{tag|nowiki}} prints <nowiki>...</nowiki>.

HTML entities

<nowiki> and <pre> parse HTML entities. If you want to escape this, replace & with &amp;.

Markup Renders as
<nowiki>&amp;</nowiki>

&

<nowiki>&lt;</nowiki>

<

<nowiki>&amp;amp;</nowiki>

&amp;

<nowiki>&amp;lt;</nowiki>

&lt;

Use in templates

When used in a template, <nowiki> simply does not work as you may expect.

• Including <nowiki> immediately acts upon the enclosed markup. Attempting to escape or transclude the brackets causes <nowiki /> to not work at all.
• Using #tag:nowiki works, but has major limitations:
• Templates, parameters, parser functions, and parser magic such as signatures are parsed, not nowikied.
• Included <ref> tags will expose the strip markers.
Markup Renders as
<nowiki>{{tl|cite book}}</nowiki>

{{tl|cite book}}

{{#tag:nowiki|{{tl|cite book}}}}

{{[[Template:cite book|cite book]]}}

{{#tag:nowiki|<ref>Text</ref>}}
{{reflist}}


[1]

1. Text

### Pre

Shortcut:

<pre> is a parser tag that emulates the HTML <pre> tag. It defines preformatted text that is displayed in a fixed-width font and is enclosed in a dashed box. HTML and wiki markups are escaped and spaces and line breaks are preserved, but HTML entities are parsed.

<pre> examples
Markup Renders as
<pre><!--Comment-->

[[wiki]] markup &amp;</pre>
<!--Comment-->

[[wiki]] markup &

<pre> formatted text does not wrap, thus text may extend past the browser window:

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

To resolve this, <pre> may use CSS styling to add wrapping or a horizontal scrollbar:

• Wrapping: <pre style="white-space:-moz-pre-wrap; white-space:-pre-wrap; white-space:-o-pre-wrap; white-space:pre-wrap; word-wrap:break-word;">
• Scroll bar: <pre style="overflow:auto; width:auto;">

Alternatively, consider using {{pre2}} template or <syntaxhighlight lang="text">...</syntaxhighlight>.

It's uncommon – but on occasion acceptable for notes to other editors – to add a hidden comment within the text of an article. These comments are only visible when editing or viewing the source of a page. Most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page. The format is to surround the hidden text with "<!--" and "-->" and may cover several lines, e.g.:

<!-- An example of hidden comments
This won't be visible except in "edit" mode. -->


Another way to include a comment in the wiki markup uses the {{Void}} template, which can be abbreviated as {{^}}. This template "expands" to the empty string, generating no HTML output; it is visible only to people editing the wiki source. Thus {{^|A lengthy comment here}} operates similarly to the comment <!-- A lengthy comment here -->. The main difference is that the template version can be nested, while attempting to nest HTML comments produces odd results.

## Variables

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ ਨੇਮਸਪੇਸਾਂ
ਵਿਸ਼ਾ ਨੇਮਸਪੇਸਾਂ ਗੱਲਬਾਤ ਸਫ਼ੇ
0 (ਮੁੱਖ/ਲੇਖ) ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 1
2 ਵਰਤੋਂਕਾਰ ਵਰਤੋਂਕਾਰ ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 3
4 ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 5
6 ਤਸਵੀਰ ਤਸਵੀਰ ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 7
8 ਮੀਡੀਆਵਿਕੀ ਮੀਡੀਆਵਿਕੀ ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 9
10 ਫਰਮਾ ਫਰਮਾ ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 11
12 ਮਦਦ ਮਦਦ ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 13
14 ਸ਼੍ਰੇਣੀ ਸ਼੍ਰੇਣੀ ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 15
100 ਫਾਟਕ ਫਾਟਕ ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 101
108 [[ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ:ਪੁਸਤਕਾਂ|]] 109
118 [[ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ:ਡਰਾਫਟ|]] 119
446 [[ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ:ਕੋਰਸ ਸਫ਼ੇ|]] 447
710 TimedText TimedText talk 711
828 ਮੌਡਿਊਲ ਮੌਡਿਊਲ ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 829
2300 ਗੈਜਟ ਗੈਜਟ ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 2301
2302 ਗੈਜਟ ਪਰਿਭਾਸ਼ਾ ਗੈਜਟ ਪਰਿਭਾਸ਼ਾ ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ 2303
2600 Topic
ਬਣਾਵਟੀ ਨੇਮਸਪੇਸਾਂ
-1 ਖ਼ਾਸ
-2 ਮੀਡੀਆ
Code Effect Notes
{{CURRENTWEEK}} 40
{{CURRENTDOW}} 4

Monday = 1, Tuesday = 2, etc., but Sunday = 0

{{CURRENTMONTH}} 10
{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} ਅਕਤੂਬਰ
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} ਅਕਤੂਬਰ
{{CURRENTDAY}} 6
{{CURRENTDAYNAME}} ਵੀਰਵਾਰ
{{CURRENTYEAR}} 2022
{{CURRENTTIME}} 19:38
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} 38,810
{{NUMBEROFPAGES}} 1,35,390
{{NUMBEROFUSERS}} 42,840
{{PAGENAME}} Wiki markup
{{NAMESPACE}} ਮਦਦ
{{REVISIONID}} -
{{REVISIONUSER}} Satnam S Virdi
{{localurl:pagename}} /wiki/Pagename
{{localurl:Wikipedia:Sandbox|action=edit}} /w/index.php?title=%E0%A8%B5%E0%A8%BF%E0%A8%95%E0%A9%80%E0%A8%AA%E0%A9%80%E0%A8%A1%E0%A9%80%E0%A8%86:Sandbox&action=edit
{{fullurl:pagename}} //pa.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pagename
{{fullurl:pagename|query_string}} //pa.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pagename&query_string
{{SERVER}} //pa.wikipedia.org
{{ns:1}} ਗੱਲ-ਬਾਤ

{{ns:index}} e.g. {{ns:1}} → full name of namespace

{{SITENAME}} ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ

{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} is the number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect. This includes full articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.

{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages but not in English; {{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.

In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like {{grammar:case|word}} to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case. For example, {{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}} means the same as {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}.

## HTML

Many HTML tags can be used in wiki markup. You can check your HTML by using markup validation.